Blockchain is a decentralized database for recording transactions over a peer-to-peer network.
Blockchain networks, unlike traditional network architecture, require a consensus among the peers in the network to update the database. In a traditional network, however, a central authority oversees the information recorded on the database.
Each of the nodes in a blockchain network acts as a micro-server and host, synonymous with a central server in centralized networks. Following the decentralized framework of these nodes, there is a need for a consensus at a regular interval so that all nodes will be in the same final state.
It is pertinent to mention that the best consensus protocols are immune to downtimes and malicious nodes. In the event of downtime of a node, or the presence of a corrupt node, a fool-proof consensus protocol will continue verifying and adding blocks to the chain.
There are many consensus protocols deployed in existing blockchains today, from PoW to PoS, DPoS, and others. Projects deploy protocols according to their need and the use case of the blockchain network involved.
The 5ireChain Consensus Protocol
5ireChain aims to be the first layer-1 protocol to develop a sustainable and for-benefit ecosystem based on the sustainable development goals defined by the United Nations. Our proposed consensus mechanism considers sustainability as one of the most important components of the consensus mechanism. We are using a novel consensus protocol that is derived from the PoS protocol and modified to align with the UN 2030 agenda.
On the 5ireChain, nodes are selected in each network epoch to verify and add new blocks to the chain. These selected nodes are denoted as block assemblers while all other nodes act as the attesters for that epoch. The work of the block attesters is to checkmate any malicious act by the incumbent block assembler nodes.
5ire’s protocol is a multifactor protocol that selects block assembler by considering factors other than staked amount, as seen in PoS. Our block assembler nodes are selected based on multiple factors, including the reliability score, stake, randomized voting, and sustainability score. The reliability score, randomized voting, and sustainability score weighting lower the bar and promote the competitive position of smaller holders on the network.
A reliability score is a measure of credibility given to a node. It is one of the determinants considered when selecting the block assembler. The reliability score gives an insight into the previous behavior of a node. When a node is considered the most reliable, it earns a 20% reliability score. The reliability of a node is calculated based on three variables- age, stake, and last block assembly.
- Age: The age of a node or the time node has been online during the last 4 epochs (8 days). This will be determined by considering the number of successful blocks created by the node during the allotted time slot and the number of blocks attested.
- Stake: This will be determined by how long a node has held the stake. For example, if node1 has been online all the time during the last 4 epochs and has held the same or higher amount of stake as node2, node1 will get the maximum reliability score.
- Block assembly: Successful block assembly will give a node a higher probability to be elected as an assembler again. Failure to create a block when the slot is assigned to a node will not only result in less reliability score but will also lower the stake due to slashing.
Randomized voting has been introduced in 5ireChain to provide a better alternative to nominated or delegated voting. We believe that nodes should be rewarded and punished based on an individual basis and not on a collective reward-and-punishment basis. Therefore, in 5ireChain’s randomized voting, nodes will use a pseudo-random voting algorithm to vote for nodes randomly and will then attest to the blocks created by those nodes.
This will help us curb coercion where nodes persuade the other nodes to vote for them in return for a better return on their stake. We believe that this coercion promotes cartelization of the network where nodes consistently vote for the same nodes and receive more share in block creation than the stake they represent.
Nodes should be rewarded and punished based on their individual acts because of the possibility that a block-creating node could be compromised and create a fraudulent block. PoS algorithms are typically programmed to punish all the nodes that voted for a fraudulent node regardless of the fact that the voting nodes may act without a prior prompt to do so.
Therefore, 5ireChain will only slash the stake of fraudulent nodes and not of those who voted for the node. Voting nodes’ stakes will only be slashed if they also attested to the fraudulent block because in this case, it would be certain that there was collusion.
One of the multiple factors that help us select assemblers is the sustainability score. It is a score based on an organization’s environmental, social, and governance (ESG impact.
5ire will use proposals where nodes submit their sustainability report based on our template. 5ire ESG nodes will evaluate the sustainability report and will assign the weight on a Likert scale to each of the ESG factors. We will use our template to collect data from stakeholders who want to participate in the network. Our template will then be evaluated for ESG compliance and assigned appropriate scores.
Our multi-factor consensus algorithm will use this score along with the reliability score, stake, and randomized voting to select the list of assemblers for an epoch.
Stake as a factor for determining the block assembler node refers to the amount staked by that node. It is accorded a weighting score of 50%. The 5ireChain protocol aims to reduce the bar to give nodes with small stakes the opportunity to become a block assembler, however, nodes with high staked amounts are given significant consideration.
The need to establish a sustainable future led to the UN 2030 vision. At 5ire, we implement and materialize this vision with blockchain technology. Our unique consensus protocol is well equipped with the technicalities required to bring sustainability and social impact on-chain and to the real world.
While the world tends towards mass adoption of blockchain tech, we aim to keep the resultant society sustainable with that same technology.
More information about 5ireChain can be found by clicking on the following links:
White paper: https://bit.ly/3Qcsmor